For over 100 years, Georgia has been a premiere bobwhite quail hunting destination and the Georgia General Assembly even designated the bobwhite as the state game bird in 1970. During the last 75 years, Georgia’s landscape has gradually changed from a “sea” of bobwhite habitat that occurred primarily as an accidental by-product of land use, to a fragmented landscape comprised of small and often widely separated “islands” or fragments of habitat. That shift caused bobwhite populations to decline drastically, and consequently, so has the number of bobwhite hunters. However, there is a lot of interest and momentum for bobwhite restoration occurring and there is plenty of opportunity for success. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resource Division (WRD) is working with landowners through the Bobwhite Quail Initiative (BQI) to restore habitat for bobwhites, songbirds and other grassland dependent wildlife species.
Longleaf pine once occupied approximately 93 million acres from Virginia to Texas, but has been reduced to about 4 million acres. Longleaf is adapted to and very tolerant of fire and grows on different sites across the southeast. Its fire tolerance and canopy structure make it an excellent timber resource to be used in association with bobwhite management. Stands of longleaf that are planted at appropriate densities and prescribed burned frequently can yield excellent understory groundcover, a necessity for bobwhites and many other wildlife species in decline.
On June 25, 2014, WRD and the Longleaf Alliance hosted a Bobwhites and Longleaf field day at Silver Lake Wildlife Management Area, south of Bainbridge in Decatur County, with 25 landowners in attendance. The field day was cosponsored by Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Power, Lolly Creek Farm, The Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Quail Forever, Tall Timbers Research Station – Albany Quail Project, and USDA – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Topics included longleaf pine establishment, bobwhite habitat restoration and management, habitat fragmentation, predator management, supplemental feeding, and managing pine stands for bobwhites.
WRD BQI Biologist Drew Larson describes the specific habitat needs of bobwhites and how habitat size, structure, and distribution affect how suitable an area is for bobwhites: “Research has shown that bobwhites are an area-sensitive species, meaning they need fairly large acreages of mostly contiguous, suitable habitat. Suitable habitat for bobwhites consists of native grasses, herbaceous plants, and scattered patches of shrubby cover that is managed with fire and disking on a 2 to 3-year rotation. This early successional habitat provides nesting, brooding, and protective cover bobwhites require.
“Pine stands can also be managed for bobwhites”, says Larson. “However, there are trade-off costs in reduced revenues from forest and timber products when pine stands are managed at a high intensity for bobwhites. Timber, especially loblolly and slash pine, needs to be maintained at lower volumes to ensure ample sunlight reaches the ground to grow the ground vegetation quail need. Longleaf pine is an excellent tree to manage in conjunction with quail because higher volumes can be maintained and still produce quality groundcover. Longleaf is also very fire tolerant and can be burned at a young age, allowing the frequent fire quail need to be applied throughout the life of the pine stand.”
“Through BQI, we are working with private landowners and land managers to restore and enhance habitat for bobwhites and other wildlife. Restoration efforts are being targeted into Focal Landscapes that have been identified as having the highest potential for success. Obtaining technical assistance from a BQI biologist for the development of a management plan is a great way to start improving bobwhite habitat. ” said Reggie Thackston, WRD Private Lands Program Manager and BQI coordinator.
“Georgia WRD is also placing more emphasis on quail management on select WMA’s in the southwestern part of the state”, says Thackston. “Several WMA’s are in landscapes that make them conducive to successful quail management. Albany Nursery, Chickasawhatchee, Elmodel, River Creek, and Silver Lake WMA’s all have potential for quail restoration. These public lands could also benefit from the newly-formed Florida-Georgia Quail Coalition, a partnership that will provide funding for quail habitat work on public lands from participating Quail Forever chapters.
Learn more about managing your land for bobwhites, the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative in Georgia, and how to support bobwhite restoration efforts in Georgia at the WRD quail website, http://www.georgiawildlife.com/conservation/quail. For more information, contact Drew Larson at (478) 296-6176. For information on creating or joining a Quail Forever chapter, contact Talbott Parten at (229) 289-8199.
By: Matt Stewart, Georgia DNR Hunting & Shooting Education Specialist
Georgia’s National Archery in the Schools Program has produced its first college scholarship recipient and future NCAA shooter.
Andrew Agrinzones, a graduate of Charlton County High School in Folkston, accepted a scholarship offer to shoot for the archery team at Emmanuel College in Franklin Springs, 20 minutes northeast of Athens, this fall. Emmanuel College is a member of NCAA Division II and one of only a handful of colleges nationwide that offers scholarship funding in archery.
Agrinzones, an avid bowhunter and lifetime hunting/fishing license holder, joined the Charlton County High archery team his senior year and helped the squad reach the 2014 Georgia-National Archery in the Schools Program (NASP) state tournament in Perry, which hosted more than 900 archers.
There he met Emmanuel College head men’s and women’s archery coach Rodney Estrada, a Level IV National Training System archery coach who was onsite scouting for potential archers. Estrada videotaped junior and senior archers that day and Agrinzones stood out.
“He really liked my form,” Agrinzones said. “He said I had trainable form.”
Estrada, who also trains and coaches archers at Georgia Tech, is a proponent of NASP and has seen his archery team’s roster grow from five shooters to 23 in just one year.
“I scout for talent and look for fundamentals of the shot process and the NASP provides me a good basis for fundaments,” Estrada said. “I can take those fundamentals and polish them.”
The NASP in-school archery curriculum is generally taught in physical education and agriculture classes in 4th-12th grade and more than 1,500 students competed in regional competitions held by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Resources Division in 2014. More than 20,000 students participated in the program throughout the year. The bow used in the program is a Mathews Genesis base model without sights or releases.
“(The NASP bow) is a really good bow to learn to shoot with (just) fingers,” Agrinzones said.
Agrinzones will arrive at Emmanuel College, which also has a co-ed sporting clay shotgun team, in August for the start of classes and the beginning of archery practice. Emmanuel College recently had one of its archers, Dusty Clark, named to the 2014 United States Archery Team (USAT) Junior Compound Men’s Team. Even if Agrinzones never gets that far, he said he’ll enjoy shooting a bow for many years to come.
“I always want to go hunting,” he said.
Estrada continues to recruit not just in Georgia, but all over the country and beyond. He’s bringing in one of the top recurve shooters from New Zealand this year and the No. 1-ranked shooter from Texas in his division. He’ll also continue to monitor the NASP competitions in Georgia for future talent.
“There is an open opportunity for any junior or senior NASP shooter,” Estrada said. “I believe in NASP.”
For more information on Emmanuel College’s shooting sports teams, visit www.goeclions.com. To learn more about the National Archery in the Schools Program in Georgia, go to www.gohuntgeorgia.com/shooting-sports.
By: Bobby Bond, Georgia DNR Wildlife Biologist
Co-authors: Mike Hooker, Casey Gray and Dr. Michael Chamberlain from the University of Georgia, and John Bowers, Georgia DNR Game Management Chief
In 2012, the Georgia Wildlife Resources Division (WRD), the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) and the University of Georgia Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources (UGA) partnered to begin an extensive research project on black bears in central Georgia, the state’s smallest population of bears. This scientific effort was initiated by GDOT’s need to examine the potential impacts of the pending Highway 96 expansion on black bear movements. This provided WRD the opportunity to join the research process without having to fund an entire project alone. Previous WRD research on black bears in middle Georgia occurred from 2003-2006; however, questions remained related to various aspects of the central Georgia black bear population. Specifically, more information on reproductive ecology (female denning, litter size, recruitment, effects of burning, etc.) and population parameters was needed.
Since May 2012, UGA has monitored the movement patterns of more than 40 black bears in central Georgia using GPS tracking collars. Advanced technologies are allowing researchers to locate black bears at a rate as intense as 1 location every 5 minutes. This fine-scale location data is providing insight on how these bears move in relation to Highway 96 between Bonaire, Ga. and Interstate 16. This data also allows researchers to evaluate habitat use across the range of the central Georgia black bear population.
Of the 18 female black bears UGA has monitored in 2014, three (3) had newborn cubs in the den, seven (7) did not produce young this year, and eight (8) females from 2013 should still have yearlings with them from 2013. It’s also noteworthy that 2 of the 3 females that produced cubs in 2014 also produced cubs in 2013 but lost those cubs and thus re-bred. During 2013, litter size averaged 1.9 cubs/litter, whereas during 2014 the average litter size was 1.6 cubs/litter. Typically black bears give birth to around 2 cubs and raise them until they are 2 years old. Litter sizes of 3-4 bears are not typical but do occur. However, most of those larger litters will result in only 1-2 cubs being recruited into the population. Therefore, most black bears only produce cubs every 2-3 years.
Part of this ongoing study was to estimate the population size. Knowing the exact population size is not necessary and is fiscally and logistically unattainable. Wildlife biologists use scientific techniques to monitor a variety of biological aspects of a wildlife population and how these indices inform changes in the population. This is why we use estimated population sizes and indices to manage wildlife populations. The portion of the study to estimate the size of the bear population used barbed wire hair snares and capture-recapture techniques to estimate the number of bears in central Georgia. UGA researchers constructed 129 hair snares throughout the study area (from south of the Houston County Landfill to I-16 in Twiggs County) that were baited. Hair snares were checked weekly for 2 months during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and more than 6,000 hair samples were collected for DNA analysis. Initial modeling results estimate the central Georgia bear population to number ~150 individuals. However, this is only after one year of data collection. A better estimate will be available in the future after a few more years of data collection. Typically, wildlife models get better with additional data.
The next phase of the project will be to move the population estimate research to north of I-16 in Twiggs and Wilkinson counties, primarily to determine relative bear numbers in that portion of the state.
VIDEO: The video shows the UGA researchers crawling into another sow’s den site, the difficulty of getting to it,
the sow’s cubs of the year, and collaring and collecting data from the sow and cubs.
Here’s a pretty cool infographic from the National Shooting Sports Foundation highlighting just how much the hunting and firearms communities contribute to wildlife conservation. Hunters, anglers and wildlife watchers all contribute a great deal to conservation, and as always, we can’t thank you enough. You make wildlife conservation possible in Georgia!
By: John Bowers, Georgia DNR Chief of Game Management and Charlie Killmaster, Georgia DNR state deer biologist; with info provided by Bobby Bond, Georgia DNR Wildlife Biologist
The timing of the rut, or breeding season, is of keen interest to many hunters and managers of white-tailed deer. Generalizations and errant conclusions are often made based on single observations of specific activities observed such as a buck chasing a doe, or a single deer visiting a scrape or making a rub. While these are certainly important reproductive related behaviors that can be observed, they are not objective assessments of determining the peak or length of the rut in white-tailed deer. It’s important to understand the basics of the rut!
The primary trigger for breeding in white-tailed deer is the photoperiod. Photoperiod refers to the duration that a plant or animal is exposed to light within a 24-hour period. In the fall, shortening day length reduces the photoperiod and this triggers several physiological and behavioral changes in white-tailed deer that initiate breeding. Yet, photoperiod is not exclusively responsible for the timing of the rut. Photoperiod opens a “window” during which breeding can occur. How long that window remains open is determined by other factors, such as nutrition and herd demographics. For example, does in poor condition from inadequate nutrition may delay or forgo breeding. Areas with imbalanced sex ratios (e.g., too many does to bucks) or skewed age structures (e.g., young buck age structure) can result in lengthy, or prolonged, breeding seasons. Prolonged breeding seasons can have several undesirable affects including reduced buck survival and a prolonged fawning season that can reduce fawn survival due to malnutrition, predation or exposure. Properly managed deer herds with balanced sex ratios and improved age structures have shorter breeding seasons with intense rutting behaviors, increased competition for breeding and enhanced hunting opportunities. Poorly managed herds with sex ratios skewed toward does and imbalanced buck age structures often lack these desired opportunities.
Wildlife biologists scientifically determine the breeding period for white-tailed deer using a fetus scale, which is a specially designed “ruler” that allows biologists and managers to determine fetus age in days. Deer fetuses are collected from does harvested late in the deer season after the rut has occurred. It is important to note the harvest date of the doe from which the fetus(es) was collected. Armed with the fetal age and the harvest date of the doe, a biologist can determine the date of conception. When this data is collected from numerous does within a hunting season, biologists can determine the range, or length, of the breeding season (determined by the earliest and latest bred does) and the peak of breeding (usually a 7-10 day period when the majority of does were bred). By “forward” dating, biologists can determine the length of parturition (birthing or fawning) and the peak of fawn drop.
This method allows biologists to scientifically determine the rut and this scientific information is an important consideration in managing white-tailed deer and informing policy and regulatory decisions for establishing biologically appropriate hunting seasons. It can also be important for hunting clubs and managers to add this data collection tool to their arsenal so they can “fine-tune” management decisions for the properties they manage and hunt.
This photo shows four fetuses collected by Ms. York of York’s Deer Processing in Barnesville (Lamar County). They are from a single doe that was harvested on January 1, 2014. Wildlife biologist Bobby Bond aged the fetuses on a fetus scale (shown in the photo). They were aged at 50 days old. Back dating from Jan. 1 returns November 12, 2013 as the date of conception, which coincides well with known rut for this region of the state (early-mid Nov.). Also, using the scale, the day of parturition would have occurred in about 148 more days or on May 29, 2014. Interesting, Mrs. York also previously provided us with a picture of 5 fetuses from a single doe the year before!
It should be noted that adult does in good condition typically give birth to twins. Occasionally, very healthy does can give birth to triplets. It’s rare that an adult doe will successfully carry three or more fetuses to full term. Even though a doe may conceive three (3) or more fetuses, one (1) or more of the fetuses are unlikely to survive in-utero and will be reabsorbed.
Wildlife biologist Kevin Lowrey provides his outlook for Georgia’s 2014 Turkey Season, as well as data from past seasons
Turkey season opens tomorrow, March 22! We know you’re ready to Go Hunt Georgia, so here’s what to expect this season.
Overall, statewide productivity was up slightly in the summer of 2013 (1.4 poults/hen). It’s considered low, though statewide productivity in 2012 was even lower at 1.3 poults/hen. Gobbler harvest levels in the spring of 2012 and 2013 were high. So in the last couple of years, poult production has been low and high harvest levels have reduced the annual carryover. In a nutshell, hunters may have to hunt harder and longer to be successful in 2014. The Piedmont and Ridge and Valley should see most of that change, while the rest of the state should be similar to the last few years.
In the lower coastal plain, 2013 poult production increased 24 percent from 2012 and remains stable in the upper coastal plain. These regions of the state should experience a season similar to 2013.
2013 poult production in the mountains increased 110 percent (0.65 v 1.4 pph) over 2012, but is still considered low. Season outlook in this region of the state is expected to be better than 2013.
The Piedmont of Georgia represents the “bread and butter” of the state turkey population. In 2012, this region recorded 1.2 pph and increased slightly to 1.3 pph in 2013. This data suggests that the Piedmont experienced low production in 2012 and 2013. As such, the outlook for 2014 is expected to be a challenging season for Piedmont turkey hunters.
The Ridge and Valley experienced a marked decrease in productivity in 2013 with an index of 0.80 pph (down from 1.4 in 2012). Similarly to the Piedmont, productivity has suffered the last 2 summers and the outlook for 2014 is expected to be a challenging season.
Check out Kevin’s 2014 forecast and 2013 recap in this video!
If you’re heading out this weekend, take some photos of your hunt. We want to see them! Share them with us on Instagram with the hashtag #gohuntga.
Info provided by Randy Wood, Georgia DNR Wildlife Technician
Check out this photo. The buck on the top-left was caught on a trail camera in 2012. If you take a look at the rack, it “appears” to be of a lower quality. Many hunters today would consider the deer to be a “cull.”
This buck was 20 yards broadside from a hunter at one point in 2012. It was scrutinized as a potential “cull,” however the hunter passed it up.
Flash forward to 2013. Once again, on the same private property, the buck was caught on a camera less than 50 yards from the camera that caught it in 2012 (you can see the 2013 photo on the top-right). Most hunters would deem the 2013 version a quality buck! Two days later, and less than 300 yards from the camera on private property, the buck was harvested on Ocmulgee WMA’s archery only area, as can be seen in the bottom photo.
Not every deer that hunters deem a “cull” can be attributed to genetic factors. This same deer grew a fine rack the following year! Very seldom are single-sided antler malformations related to genetics, but rather the result of injury or disease. When the buck was passed up in 2012, the hunter noted that there appeared to be an injury around the hip/pelvic region. When the deer was harvested in 2013, there was a visible spot of an old injury resembling the description from 2012.
Keep in mind, deer antlers can often be impacted by injuries rather than genetics. So, perhaps we all need to think twice before ”culling” a buck based on antler malformations. In addition, no amount of culling will impact herd genetics, positively or negatively.